Operating System

The New MacOS Catalina

mac os catalina

macOS Catalina or macOS 10.15 is the newest version of the operating system that will run on the Mac from this fall 2019. macOS Catalina’s name was inspired by the Catalina Islands that is off the coast of Southern California.

In macOS Catalina Apple has taken away the iTunes app that’s been a staple to the Mac operating system since 2001. iTunes has been split into three apps: Music, Podcasts, and TV (coming this fall 2019). The new apps are similar in function to iTunes now but are split up by feature. You can still manage your devices in Catalina, but it’s now done through the Finder rather than through an app. Syncing media can be done using the Apple TV, Podcasts, or Music apps.

In the Music app there’s full access to the music library just like in iTunes. Regardless of whether the songs were purchased or ripped from a CD. The iTunes Music Store is included in the Music app, and you can access Apple Music content too.
The Apple TV app is similar to the Apple TV app on the Apple TV and iOS devices, offering up access to TV and movie content for the first time. The new TV app will support 4K HDR content on 2018 and later Macs.
In the new Podcasts app users can access their Podcasts library, which was previously housed in iTunes. There are features for browsing, viewing top charts, and managing your library, plus new editor-curated categories. Podcasts is a simple app but useful for those who listen to a lot of podcasts.
Your 32-bit apps are no longer going to work in macOS Catalina. You’ll get a warning when you install the update. macOS Catalina supports 64-bit apps only, and that means that some of your older apps that haven’t been updated for a while won’t run at all. The Dashboard feature which has long been disabled by default has been officially removed in Catalina.
A new Sidecar feature available in System Preferences lets you turn your ipad into a display for your Mac with just the click of a button. Apple Pencil support works with the ipad with Sidecar, so you can turn your ipad into a drawing tablet in apps like Photoshop. You can extend your display or mirror it so both screens display the same content.
macOS Catalina ramps up the security in macOS, and Gatekeeper. Apple’s security protocol checks all your apps for known security issues. New data protections also require apps to get your permission before accessing your documents.

macbook pro

For those with an Apple Watch set up to unlock the Mac, there’s now an option to approve security prompts by tapping on the side button of the watch. Macs with a T2 chip in them support Activation Lock for the first time, making them useless to thieves much as it does on the iPhone.
A new Find My app is also available in iPadOS and iOS 13 brings the Find My Mac and Find My Friends technology to a Mac app for the first time and it has a feature that lets you track your devices even when they’re offline. This option leverages Bluetooth and the devices of other people who might be around your lost or stolen device, relaying its location securely and anonymously back to you.
Screen Time has expanded to the Mac in macOS Catalina so now you can track your device usage across your all device. Not just iPhone and iPad, for a better picture of how you’re spending your time.
Project Catalyst, known internally at Apple as Project Marzipan, will let developers port their iPad apps over to the Mac with just a few clicks in Xcode and minor tweaks, which will ultimately result in a much greater number of macOS apps available.
There’s a new Photos interface that organizes your pictures by day, month, or year, while also intelligently choosing your best photos so you can relive all of your favourite memories.
In Safari, there’s a new start page that uses Siri Suggestions to display frequently visited sites, bookmarks, iCloud tabs, Reading List selections, and links you’ve been sent in Messages for a more personalized Safari start page.

Mail in macOS Catalina adds new features for blocking emails from specific senders, muting threads, and unsubscribing from commercial email lists. There’s a new Gallery View in notes, along with new view-only collaboration options and folder sharing.

As on iOS, the Reminders app has been overhauled with introducing a new user interface, smart lists, attachment support, and Messages integration to make it easier to create and organize your reminders.
Voice Control lets users who can’t use a Mac in the traditional way operate their machine using solely voice commands through Siri. This feature also works on iOS 13 and iPadOS.

The macOS Catalina beta is limited to developers at the current time, but it will be available to public beta testers starting in July. Apple plans to beta test the update for several months before releasing it to the public this fall 2019.
macOS Catalina installation requirements :
MacBook 2015 and later
MacBook Air 2012 and later
MacBook Pro 2012 and later
Mac mini 2012 and later
iMac 2012 and later
iMac Pro 2017 and later
Mac Pro 2013 and later

Operating System

Linux Mint 19.1 “Tessa”

linux mint cinnamon

Linux Mint 19.1 is a long term support release which will be supported until 2023. It comes with updated software and brings refinements and many new features to make your desktop even more comfortable to use.
Linux Mint Editions:
Linux Mint Cinnamon- An edition featuring the Cinnamon desktop.
Linux Mint MATE- An edition featuring the MATE desktop.
Linux Mint Xfce- An edition featuring the Xfce desktop.
Minimum System Requirements:
1GB RAM (2GB recommended).
15GB of disk space (20GB recommended).
1024×768 resolution Graphics.

New features in Linux Mint 19.1 Cinnamon.
New Panel Layout: As you go through the “First Steps” section of the Linux Mint 19.1 welcome screen, you’ll be asked to choose your favourite desktop layout. Cinnamon 4.0 ships with a brand new panel layout and thus with a new workflow. With a click of a button you’ll be able to switch back and forth between old and new and choose whichever default look pleases you the most. The new panel ships with a window list with app grouping and window preview. The panel looks more modern but it’s also much more configurable than before.
You can define a different icon size for each of the three panel zones. Each panel zone can now have a crisp icon size. The size of symbolic icons can also be adjusted to make your panel look exactly the way you want.
By default Cinnamon features a dark large panel, where icons look crisp everywhere, and where they scale in the left and center zones. This new look, along with the new workflow defined by the grouped window list, make Cinnamon feel much more modern than before and if you preferred the way it was before the old look and its traditional workflow are still there just a click away.
Nemo: Nemo is three times faster than before. Its code was reviewed and optimized and the result is impressive. The file manager is lightning fast, it feels extremely light and browsing directories is a breeze. It’s never been that fast before and it’s immediately noticeable. Desktop settings were revamped. On supported file systems Nemo is now able to show file creation times. You can configure Nemo to show thumbnails depending on the directory you are browsing. Nemo python and all Nemo python extensions were ported to Python 3.
Other Improvements: Input lag was reduced on NVIDIA cards and the window manager feels more responsive when moving windows. You now also have the possibility to turn off VSYNC in the System Settings. This basically delegates VSYNC to your GPU driver and if that driver performs well it can eliminate input lag and boost performance.
A huge number of upstream changes were ported from the GNOME project.
Similar to Mutter, Muffin now uses its own embedded version of COGL and Clutter, which received most of the patches applied to the one in GNOME.
Many Mutter performance improvements were applied to Muffin.
CJS received many commits from GNOME’s GJS, including improvements to its garbage collection.
Cinnamon 4.0 rarely ventures past 250MB RAM on NVIDIA, it feels more responsive than 3.8 and some of the long standing rendering issues are a thing of the past.
The inhibit applet shows inhibitors.
You can choose which calculator application should be the default, in “Preferred Applications”.
Support for XScreensaver hacks and webkit themes have been removed from the Cinnamon screensaver.
Applets and desklets can now define custom widgets to use in their settings dialog.
Update Manager: The Update Manager is able to list mainline kernels and to show their support status. A new button was added to make it easier to remove unused kernels.
Software Sources: The Software Sources tool was given a new makeover. Similar to the welcome screen, it’s now using a Xapp sidebar and a headerbar. When software crashes tools such as mintreport produce a stack trace our developers can look at to understand the cause of the crash. This is the first step towards fixing such a bug. For the stack trace to be meaningful users need to have debug symbols installed. In an effort to reduce bandwidth for their mirrors Debian decided to move debug symbols outside of the main repositories. This decision affected not only Debian and LMDE but also Ubuntu and Linux Mint and made it much more difficult for users to install these symbols. To simplify this process support for debug symbols was added into the Software Sources tool. Adding debug symbol repositories can now be done with a click of the mouse.
A new button was also added within the “Maintenance” tab to remove duplicate entries in your repositories.
Input Methods: The Language Settings and the Input Methods are now two separate applications. The user interface for the Input Methods tool was revamped. It uses an icon sidebar and now shows a dedicated page for each supported language. Clear instructions are provided for each language to guide you through not only installing support packages but also selecting the right input method framework and the right input method.
Cinnamon 4.0 also received better Fcitx support. Its keyboard applet now hides when Fcitx is running.
Xreader: Improvements were made to the look and feel of the document viewer. Thumbnails and page borders in particular look crisper.
Xed: The text editor, moved to libpeas, python3 and the MESON build system. Its status bar was reworked. It now indicates whether the document is in tabs or spaces mode and highlight modes are searchable.
LibXApp: Four new widgets are available in libxapp.

  1. XAppStackSidebar makes it easy to create icon sidebars. Such as the ones used in the Welcome Screen or the Software Sources.
  2. XAppPreferencesWindow provides a multi-page preference window with a built-in icon sidebar. This component is used to display application preferences in Xed, Xreader and Nemo.
  3. XAppIconChooserDialog provides a dialog which lets you choose an icon name or an icon path.
  4. XAppIconChooserButton provides a button which shows an icon or an image, and lets you choose a new one when clicked.
    Other Improvements: Firewall configuration was added to the “First Steps” section of the welcome screen to prevent you from typing your password into the wrong window and sending it online by mistake. Sudo now shows asterisks when you type your password.
    This release ships with linux-firmware 1.173.2 and the Linux kernel 4.15.0-20.
    Artwork Improvements: Linux Mint 19.1 features a superb collection of backgrounds. Mint-Y themes were given more contrast. The icons now look darker than before. It is easier to visually identify the focused window.
    Components: Linux Mint 19.1 features Cinnamon 4.0, a Linux kernel 4.15 and an Ubuntu 18.04 package base.
    Strategy: Linux Mint 19.1 will receive security updates until 2023. Until 2020 future versions of Linux Mint will use the same package base as Linux Mint 19.1 making it trivial for people to upgrade. Until 2020 the development team won’t start working on a new base and will be fully focused on this one.
linux mint mate

About Linux Mint
Linux Mint is a community driven Linux distribution based on Debian and Ubuntu that strives to be a modern elegant and comfortable operating system which is both powerful and easy to use. Linux Mint provides full out-of-the-box multimedia support by including some proprietary software and comes bundled with a variety of free and open-source applications.
The project was created by Clément Lefèbvre and is being actively developed by the Linux Mint Team and community. Development of Linux Mint began in 2006 with a beta release of Linux Mint 1.0 code-name “Ada” which was based on Kubuntu.
Cinnamon: Cinnamon is a fork of GNOME Shell based on the innovations made in Mint Gnome Shell Extensions. It has been released as an add-on for Linux Mint 12 and available as a default desktop environment since Linux Mint 13.

Operating System

Huawei Ark OS

huawei ark os

Huawei Ark OS
Huawei had confirmed quite recently that it is working on its own operating system as an alternative to Android and thanks to several trademarks that Huawei submitted we may know the name of that operating system.
The company has trademarked three names with EUIPO that includes HUAWEI ARK OS, HUAWEI ARK, ARK, and ARK OS. All of these trademarks were filed on May 24, so not so many days ago.
These trademarks do not confirm that this is Huawei’s upcoming alternative to Android but considering that the company confirmed that it is working on that OS and that its development had to be accelerated due to recent US and Google-related issues. Chances are that the OS will be called “Ark OS”.
Huawei actually confirmed way back in November that it is developing an Android alternative though back then the news was not as important as it is now. If you have not been living under a rock for the past couple of weeks you know that the US basically banned Huawei from doing business with US companies. Which prompted Google to cut ties with the company as well.
When the company said it developed its own operating system in case of any circumstances that it can face from the US. The possible name was ( a Chinese name, which could be different for the global users ) Huawei OS – “Hongmeng“.
Following all that, a number of other companies cancelled on Huawei. Creating a huge issue for one of the largest smartphone manufacturers in the world. Based on the latest numbers Huawei is the second largest smartphone manufacturer in the world after Samsung and the company was aiming to trump Samsung next year but this prohibition will affect those plans quite a bit.
According to recent reports Huawei’s sales dropped following recent US-related issues. Huawei’s smartphones are based on Android, and even though Huawei was granted a three-month grace period to keep its license. That won’t mean much for the company if it doesn’t manage to turn things around.
Huawei’s CEO said that the company is ready for the change and ensured its users that everything will be okay but there are a ton of obstacles for the company if the situation doesn’t get ironed out. Switching to a completely new OS is one thing but Huawei is now having issues on the hardware side as well.
Many of its components either come from US companies or are provided by companies that have direct ties to those US companies. As various patents are into play which may render Huawei illegible to use those parts. Its Kirin chips may be affected by the whole situation as well.
Now, this may be only a political maneuver initialized by the US President Donald Trump. As he did say recently that Huawei may be included in the US-China trade deal. If that ends up happening all of Huawei’s issues may be resolved but the longer this period lasts the more damage will be done to the company. It would be a real hit for the tech community to see Huawei fall down the ladder. As it would have a considerable impact on competition and basically leave the vast majority of the market for Samsung and Apple to control.
Huawei’s first-ever self-developed operating system will soon be launched this fall.
As a Chinese tech giant Huawei will find its way around this. We all just hope that Huawei’s OS will be stable and will come with wide range of app support and doesn’t end up like Fire phone, Windows phone or other OS that came in the market but couldn’t fill the market demands. These days new OS just come and go, Time will tell if Huawei can make a permanent mark.

Operating System

A brief history of macOS

mac os x

A brief history of macOS
The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, and then launched in 1989. The kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, which was originally developed at Carnegie Mellon University. With additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language.

Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a “next-generation” OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent, Copland and Gershwin projects, but all of them were eventually abandoned. This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP, then called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple’s next generation operating system.
macOS (previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple’s Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS after Microsoft Windows.
macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the “classic” Mac OS which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS 9 in 1999. The first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving later that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California.
Apple shortened the name to “OS X” in 2012 and then changed it to “macOS” in 2016. Adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. The latest version is macOS Catalina, which will be publicly released in September 2019.
Mac OS X was originally presented as the tenth major version of Apple’s operating system for Macintosh computers; current versions of macOS retain the major version number “10”. Previous Macintosh operating systems (versions of the classic Mac OS) were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9. The letter “X” in Mac OS X’s name refers to the number 10, a Roman numeral. It is therefore correctly pronounced “ten” in this context. However, it is also commonly pronounced like the letter “X”.
OS X versions:

  1. Mac OS 10.0 “Cheetah”
  2. Mac OS 10.1 “Puma”
  3. Mac OS 10.2 “Jaguar”
  4. Mac OS 10.3 “Panther”
  5. Mac OS 10.4 “Tiger”
  6. Mac OS 10.5 “Leopard”
  7. Mac OS 10.6 “Snow Leopard”
  8. Mac OS 10.7 “Lion”
  9. Mac OS 10.8 “Mountain Lion”
  10. Mac OS 10.9 “Mavericks”
  11. Mac OS 10.10 “Yosemite”
  12. Mac OS 10.11 “El Capitan”
  13. Mac OS 10.12 “Sierra”
  14. Mac OS 10.13 “High Sierra”
  15. Mac OS 10.14 “Mojave”
  16. Mac OS 10.15 “Catalina”